1. Data Communication - Computer Networking concepts


Data Communication

When we communicate, we are sharing information. This sharing can be local or remote. between individuals, local communication usually occurs face to face, while remote communication takes place over distance. The term  Telecommunication, which includes Telephony, Telegraphy, and television, means communication at a distance.
The data refers to facts, concepts and instruction presented in whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating and using the data. In the context of computer information system, data represented by binary information units produced and consumed in the form of 0s and 1s.

Data Communications is the transfer of data or information between a source and a receiver. The source transmits the data and the receiver receives it. The actual generation of the information is not part of Data Communications nor is the resulting action of the information at the receiver. Data Communication is interested in the transfer of data, the method of transfer and the preservation of the data during the transfer process.

The purpose of Data Communications is to provide the rules and regulations that allow computers with different disk operating systems, languages, cabling and locations to share resources. The rules and regulations are called protocols and standards in Data Communications.

For data communication to occur, the communicating devices must be part of a communication system made up of a combination of hardware and software. The effectiveness of a data communication system depends on the three fundamental characteristics:
1. Delivery: The System must deliver data to the correct destination. Data must be received by the intended device or user and only by that device or user
2. Accuracy: The system must deliver data accurately. Data that have been altered in transmission and left uncorrected are rustles
3. Timeliness: The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Data delivered late are useless. In the case of video, audio, and voice data, timely delivery means delivering data as they are produced, in the same order that they are produced, and without significant delay. this kind of delivery id called real-time transmission.